Pan-European. Katarina is a variant of Katherine [q.v.], from Greek "pure". It is found widely throughout much of Europe, especially in Sweden where the pet names are Kata and Kajsa.
Introduced into Scotland by the returning crusaders, Katarina occurs in early records in place of Katharine and its various spellings.
The FreeREG list of Latin names used in old documents shows Catalina as being the equivalent of Catherine and Catherina/Katherina/Katalina being the equivalent of Katherine. Whatever the truth of it, care is needed when searching old documents as clearly there will be some variation in the names, even as there is today. Use truncated names [e.g. Catherin*] to avoid difficulties with Latin case endings.